Autumn or Fall? Advanced English Study!

In English, the names of the 4 seasons are:


By National Aeronautics and Space Agency [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Winter, Spring, Summer, and Autumn.

Now it's Fall, I mean Autumn. Wait, why does our current season have 2 names, Autumn and Fall? That's a good question! Here is what I found out.
🍂The word Autumn, like many English words, has come from other languages. Autumn came from Old French and Latin. According to the article: 

🗣Why Do We Call the Seasons Spring, Summer, Fall and Winter? http://mentalfloss.com/article/52813/how-did-seasons-get-their-names
“Autumn,” meanwhile, came to English via the Old French autompne, from the Latin autumnus.
So where did 'Fall' come from? According to some answers I found on Quora:

🗣What's the difference between "fall" and "autumn"? Is there any difference between the two words? https://www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-fall-and-autumn-Is-there-any-difference-between-the-two-words#
Americans call the period from September to November “fall” because in America, that’s when the leaves of deciduous trees turn yellow and then fall off.
So Fall is used mainly in North America, but not really in England. I'm Canadian so I often use Fall but in England, the leaves stay on the trees until December so Autumn is the natural choice. In Japan, my current home, the leaves stay on the trees much later due to the weather.



I thought this was interesting! All languages are interesting to me. Here is more info on English season names from MentalFloss.com
http://mentalfloss.com/article/52813/how-did-seasons-get-their-names

Spring

Before Spring was called Spring, it was called Lent in Old English. Starting in the 14th century, that time of year was called “springing time”—a reference to plants “springing” from the ground. In the 15th century this got shortened to “spring-time,” and then further shortened in the 16th century to just “spring.” 
1 way to change an adjective to a verb is by adding the suffix ~en. In this quote, the word "shortened" is the past tense form of the verb shorten. It means to make something shorter, this is the verb form of the adjective short.
More on adjectives becoming verbs here: Link

Plants "springing" from the ground
Original source:
“no copyright infringement is intended”


Summer

 “Summer” came from the Old English name for that time of year, sumor. This, in turn, came from the Proto-Germanic sumur-, which itself came from the Proto-Indo-European root sam- (sam- seems to be a variant of the Proto-Indo-European sem-, meaning “together / one").
Proto means - original; from which others develop. 
A prototype is the first design of something from which other forms are copied or developed
Proto-Germanic is the original form of the German language.
Proto-Indo-European is an ancient language on which all Indo-European languages are thought to be based. *The origin of modern Indian and European languages.

https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/proto?q=proto-
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/prototype?q=prototype
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/american_english/proto-indo-european

Winter

“Winter,” meanwhile, derives from the Proto-Germanic wentruz. This, in turn, probably comes from the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) wed, meaning “wet,” or it may come from the PIE wind-, meaning “white.”  Either way, the Proto-Germanic wentruz gave rise to the Old English “winter” as the fourth season of the year, and the name for the season has stuck around ever since.


give rise to something
(formal) to cause something to happen or exist
...the Proto-Germanic wentruz gave rise to the Old English “winter”...

~ The use of the Proto-Germanic word wentruz caused the word winter to be used in Old English.
https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/rise_1#rise_1__300

Click below and learn to use the 
passive voice in English!⇩



Natural English conversation - Use TURN instead of BECOME


🍂This season leaves will become yellow, orange and red. The leaves change color. They will turn yellow, orange and red.

Natural English conversation - Use TURN instead of BECOME

In English conversation, we often use the word turn instead of become. Here are a few common examples:


“Brian will turn 35 next month.” (become 35 years old)


turn means become

“My red sock got washed with my white shirts by accident! My white clothes have all turned pink!!!” (My white clothes have all become pink!)


In the examples above, the subjects changed something, color or age, but they didn't change what they were. Brian is still Brian, he is just one year older. My clothes are still clothes, but they are pink now.

If one thing becomes something else, we can say turn to or turn into. Please look at the following examples:

"If you leave water in the freezer it will turn to ice." (Water will become ice.)



"My niece Grace has turned into a beautiful young lady." (My sister's daughter has changed from a girl to a lady. This is a common way to express that a young person has grown up. They have become an adult.)







Step by step English grammar! Verbs ~ past tense

Step by step English grammar. Verbs ~ past tense

In this awesome post you will learn how to use the simple past tense with confidence. 
*The basics are the most important part of your English grammar and communication study. They are the foundation of your language.






Past tense verbs


Please read the following passage ↓


Mark Twain was an American writer. He lived from 1835 to 1910. He wrote many popular books and traveled across Europe and America. 

Was, lived, wrote and traveled are verbs in the simple past tense.

Past tense verbs often end with _ed. These are called regular verbs.
  • He lived from 1835 to 1910.
  • Mark Twain traveled across Europe and America.
Other examples:
  • We played volleyball after school.
  • Lois and Meg talked for hours.


BUT…

In English, there are many verbs whose past tense doesn't end with _edThese are called irregular verbs.
  • Mark Twain was an American writer. (Was is the past tense singular form of the verb to be.)
  • He wrote many popular books. (Wrote is the past tense of write.)
Other examples:
  • I bought a new computer yesterday. (Bought is the past tense of buy.)
  • We saw a great movie on Friday, it was about Mark Twain. (Saw is the past tense of see.)

😉Find 50 common irregular English verbs with example sentences at the end of this post. 



Simple past tense rules


① Negative verb forms and questions in the past tense use the auxiliary verb doThe main verb will be in simple present tense.

Negative past tense statements use did not, didn't. 

  • Mark Twain didn't go to university. (Not didn't went)
  • The computer sale is over soon so I didn't want to wait. (Not didn't wanted)

Past tense questions use did you? - did he/she/it etc.

  • Did Mark Twain live in Australia? (Not did he lived?)
  • Did you buy a Mac or a PC? (Not did you bought?)

② When do is the main verb we will use this grammar:
Did do. Didn't do.

A: "What did you do on Saturday?"
B: "I didn't do anything. My day was boring."


The best (and only) way to learn irregular verbs in their past tense is to memorize them. I have included a list below with some natural examples make them easy to remember.


Common irregular verbs


Below is a list of the 50 most common irregular verbs in English from esl lounge. 

https://www.esl-lounge.com/reference/grammar-reference-most-common-irregular-verb-list.php

English irregular verb examples


1. say said
“Yancy said she would be here by 6:00.”

2. make made
“I hope she gets here soon, I made reservations for 6:30 at the restaurant.”

3. go went
“Maybe she went to the bank after work?”

4. take took
“If she took the local streets she will be late. The roads are always crowded around this time.”

5. come came
“Last week she came here after work and the traffic was fine.”

6. see saw
“I just saw her pull into the driveway.”

7. know knew
“I knew Yancy would be here on time!”




8. get got
“I got an email from Peter this morning, he’s back from his vacation.”

9. give gave
“Yes, he gave me a call from the airport last night when he arrived. I went there to pick him up.”

10. find found
“The airport was so busy! I finally found him after 15 minutes of searching.”

11. think thought
“I thought Peter would be on vacation for 3 weeks.”

12. tell told
“He told me that he would only stay for 12 days.”

13. become became
“He just became a division manager so he can’t be away from the office for too long.”

14. show showed
“On the drive home from the airport, he showed some photos from his trip.” *Show is an irregular verb because the past participle is shown not showed. Other regular verbs whose past tense is _ed use the same form for the past participle.

15. leave left
“Hawaii is so beautiful, You must have been sad when you left.”

16. feel felt
“I felt sad every time I left the beach! Relaxing on the beach is my favorite thing to do.”

17. put put
“Peter had to buy an extra duffel bag for all the souvenirs he bought for his staff. First, he put them in his suitcase, but then his clothes wouldn’t fit!”

18. bring brought
“He is so kind! He brought back a lot of treats for his co-workers.”


English irregular verb examples

19. begin began
“After working for 6 hours without a break, Lisa began to get very hungry.”

20. keep kept
“We kept telling her to relax a little, but Lisa really wants to finish this project.”

21. hold held
“Our boss held a meeting to explain how important this project is to the company.”

22. write wrote
“As the project manager, Lisa wrote a 3-page memo detailing everyone’s tasks.”

23. stand stood
“At the meeting, Lisa stood behind our boss taking notes.”

24. hear heard
“She heard everything he said very clearly.”

25. let let
“She works hard, so this morning I let her have the last donut in the staff break room.”

26. mean meant
“Sorry, I meant to say danish, not donut.”

27. meet met
“After the meeting, the team met at a local restaurant to have dinner together.”

28.set set
“The whole project team was at the restaurant, the staff set the table for 18 people. It was a big table!”

29. run ran
“It was a big dinner so I ran home to burn some calories.”

30. pay paid
“It was a great dinner, and our company paid for everything!”

31. sit sat
“Eric was very quiet during dinner. He sat in the corner and didn't say anything.”

32. speak spoke
“Almost every member of the team spoke about their contribution to the project.”

33. lie lay
“3 nights ago I lay in bed thinking about what I would say at the meeting.”


English irregular verb examples

34. lead led
“It was my first to time in Tokyo so I was happy to have a guide. He led the way during our trip.”

35. read read
“I read 6 books about Tokyo before my trip.”
*Be careful, the spelling for the past tense is the same as the present tense but they are pronounced differently.
Present tense - read ~ REED
Past tense - read ~ RED

36. grow grew
“No one took care of my garden while I was away and weeds grew everywhere.”

37. lose lost
“My favorite team lost an important game last night. I'm sad today.”

38. fall fell
“I was so nervous watching the game I fell off my chair!”

39. send sent
“My friend sent me a message right after the game to tease me. (He likes the other team!)”

40. build built
“I wish my local team had more support from the community. They built a new arena last summer but not enough people are coming to live games.”

41. understand understood
“I tried to explain to my friends that it's important to support the team, but I don't think they understood why.”


English irregular verb examples

42. draw drew
“I drew a picture for my student to help explain the meaning of the new word.”

43. break broke
“I pressed the pencil so hard that I broke it!”

44. spend spent
“I spent the next 5 minutes trying to find a new pencil.”

45. cut cut
“I reached into my desk looking for a pencil and I cut my finger on a utility knife.”

46. rise rose
“I shouted 'ouch!’ and my student rose from her desk to see what was wrong.”

47. drive drove
“I didn't have any bandages so we drove to the pharmacy to buy some.”

48. buy bought
“I bought a big box of band-aids.”

49. wear wore
“It was raining so I wore a rain jacket to the pharmacy.”

50. choose chose
“I chose a family size box, it has 50 bandaids in 4 different shapes.”


↽↽✫⇀⇀


More great English blog posts below
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Vocabulary Shots! 6 posts, 1 new meaning each - Questions from real students!

Click the images 🖰 to see each blog post↓

Are you confident to use this adjective correctly?
Can you see yourself using it in the future?

    


Have you ever bought something that was low-end?
Did you regret it after?

     

Can you get in trouble if you trespass?
Can you use the verb smell like a native speaker?

 


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Sweetener - root word practice (2018 English vocabulary)


~ I like to cook, and while I was looking at some new recipes I saw a sweetener called "stevia" that seemed to be popular. I did some research and I found that it has been used in Canada and America recently, but it has been used in Japan for more than 30 years! When I asked my students if they have heard about stevia we talked about sweeteners. 


"What is a sweetener?"

 

The word sweet is an easy and common word, so sweetener is a good example to use.



Root word technique


The root word is the base (root) of a new word. The root word is sometimes a word that we already understand, this can help us learn the meaning of the new word. 

The root word of sweetener is sweet.

We know the meaning of the adjective sweet already, it describes a taste. 
"Sugar and honey are sweet."
Sweet can also be used as a noun (usually, a plural noun sweets) to mean candy. 
"My dentist said I eat too many sweets!" = I eat too much candy.
Sweeten is a verb that means: to make something sweet
"Many people use sugar to sweeten their coffee. Black coffee is too bitter for most people."
(Bitter is the opposite of sweet, but we never use bitteren as a verb!)

So now we understand sweeten, how about our new word sweetener? Let's look at some other verbs that have "er" added at the end and see what they mean.

In baseball, the person who throws (pitches) the ball is called the pitcher. The person who hits (bats) the ball is the batter and the one who catches the ball is...? 
That's right! 
The catcher
*And not only for people, the machine that dries our hair is a hair dryer, the machine that mixes (blends) our food and drinks is a blender.

More examples of the English suffix ~er plus advance vocabulary here: Increase your English vocabulary with the suffix ~ER

What do you think a sweetener does? It makes things taste SWEET!

When we use sweetener we are most often talking about one that has fewer calories than sugar. An artificial (not natural) sweetener.

Please look at the infographic below for more examples of words made from the root word SWEET.



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Do you know the difference between HOPE and WISH? Learn here! (2018)

Do you know the difference between HOPE and WISH? Learn here!

HOPE and WISH

hope

*definitions and examples are from www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com
hope verb - to want something to happen and think that it is possible

hope (for something
"We are hoping for good weather on Sunday."
~ It's possible to have good weather on Sunday and that is what we want.

"All we can do now is wait and hope."
~ A positive outcome or result is possible and it's what we want.

A: "Will you be back before dark?"
B: "I hope so, yes."
~ Returning before it get's dark is possible and I would like to do that.


I hope to be back before dark
I hope I can get home before dark.

"The exam went better than I hoped."
~ I wanted to do well on my exam, I did even better than I wanted.

A: "Do you think it will rain?"
B: "I hope not, but I brought my folding umbrella just in case."
~ I don't want it to rain but I will bring my folding umbrella because rain is possible.


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wish

wish verb - to want something to happen or to be true even though it is unlikely or impossible

wish (that)… 
"I wish I was taller." (I wish that I was taller.)
~ In this example we can imagine the person talking is an adult so they have stopped growing. It's not possible to become taller.


"I wish I hadn't eaten so much."
~ In this example wish + not done something shows regret. We regret a past action. It's impossible to go back in time and not do an action.


Ohhh... Why did I eat so much...

A: "Where is Jim now?’" 

B: "I only wish I knew!"
~ I want to know where Jim is but I don't.


"I wish you wouldn't leave your clothes all over the floor."
~ In this example we can imagine a mother talking to her son. It's unlikely that he will change his habit of being messy, even though she wants him to.


I wish you wouldn't leave your clothes all over the floor
I wish you'd (you would) clean up your room!

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