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English grammar - comparison (2018)

English grammar - comparison



The weather is hotter than usual this summer! I thought today would be a good chance to review the comparative form. 

This July was hotter than last July!


Hotter is the comparative form of the adjective hot.
“30℃ degrees is hotter than 15℃ degrees.”




Basic comparison grammar

Mike is taller than my brother.
The book is usually more interesting than the movie.
~Taller and more interesting are comparative form. 

Here is a simple rule for using adjectives to compare two things.

One Syllable Adjectives
add '-er' to end of the adjective.

Examples: cheap - cheaper / hot - hotter / high - higher

"Yesterday was hotter than today." 
"This computer is cheaper than that computer."

Two-Syllable Adjectives Ending in '-y'
add '-ier' to end of the adjective.

Examples: happy - happier / friendly - friendlier

"Positive people are happier than negative people."
"Scott is friendlier than Fred."

Other two-syllable adjectives and adjectives with 3 or more syllables
use more + the adjective.

Examples: careful - more careful / interesting - more interesting / difficult - more difficult

"The shopping malls are always more crowded just before Christmas."
"Tokyo is more expensive than Toronto."

You may have noticed that we often use the conjunction than when things are compared. 

Dunkin’ Donuts coffee is cheaper than Starbucks. (Perfect)
Dunkin’ Donuts coffee is cheaper Starbucks. (Incorrect)

You don't have to use than in some cases where the meaning is understood.

"I go to the coffee shop beside my office almost every day, but I like Mr. Donut better." (I like Mr. Donut more than the coffee shop beside my office.)

"The shopping malls are always more crowded just before Christmas." (More crowded than other times of the year. We can understand this from the sentence.)


Comparison form is a good way to practice adjective opposites


Comparison form is a good way to practice adjective opposites. If you change the noun order in your sentence and change the adjective to its opposite, the new sentence will have the same meaning. Please look at this example.

"Mike is taller than my brother."

If we change the noun order and change the adjective to its opposite, our new sentence will have the same meaning.
"My brother is shorter than Mike."

 (Mike ← changes position with → my brother)(talloppositeshort)

More comparison opposite examples:


"December in Santiago is warmer than December in Toronto."

"December in Toronto is colder than December in Santiago."

*Hot can sometimes have a negative feeling, warm has a more positive feeling. Especially when we talk about the weather.

"It's warm today." - The feeling is nice.

"It’s hot today!" - The feeling is not so comfortable.

Cool is the opposite of warm, but when we talk about the weather it's natural to say cold if we want to show a negative feeling.

Santiago weather is warm (comfortable) in December. Toronto weather is cold (uncomfortable) in December.

Uncomfortableoppositecomfortable

*If an adjective's opposite is longer or shorter, remember to use the correct comparison form.

"Dunkin’ Donuts coffee is cheaper than Starbucks."
(Cheap has 1 syllable so we add ~er)
Starbucks coffee is more expensive than Dunkin’ Donuts.
(Expensive has 3 syllables so we put more in front)

cheap ←opposite→ expensive


Irregular adjectives comparison form


Some adjectives have an irregular comparison form.

good - better 
bad - worse 
far - farther / further

2 hands working are better than 100 hands begging.
100 hands begging are worse than 2 hands working.

Ken’s house is closer to the train station than mine.
My house is farther from the train station than Ken's.

*Grammar point ~
  • We use the preposition to with the adjective close.
  • We use the preposition from with the adjective far.
There is a convenience store close to the laundromat.
Unfortunately, our hotel was quite far from the beach.


To make the negative form of more + adjective we can replace more with less.


We will change the order of the nouns again and replace more with less. Our new sentence will have the same meaning as the original.

Writing in Japanese is more complicated than writing in English. (The Japanese language uses 3 alphabets!)

Writing in English is less complicated than writing in Japanese

2 hands working are more useful than 100 hands begging.

100 hands begging are less useful than 2 hands working.

The book is usually more interesting than the movie.

The movie is usually less interesting than the book.

*The grammar in the second sentence above is correct, but it's not natural. A native speaker might say:

"The movie is usually not as interesting as the book."

not as adjective as



Another way to compare adjectives is with the pattern "not as adjective as. Please look at these examples:

My brother is not as tall as Mike.
This is like saying “My brother is shorter than Mike.”

Dunkin’ Donuts is not as crowded as Starbucks.
This is like saying “Dunkin’ Donuts is less crowded than Starbucks.”

Bruce's new laptop is not as heavy as his old one.
~ His new laptop is lighter.



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Thanks to CBC News for weather info used in this post and Wikipedia.

For Pinterest ~
Learn English grammar - comparison

How to use ME TOO and ME NEITHER in natural English conversation! (2018)



Do you know when to use me too? How about me neither? One of my private students asked me how to use these two words naturally in English conversation. They weren't confident on which word to use to agree with a statement, so I created this lesson to help them communicate in English with confidence! Thank you for being part of the World English 808 community so I can share it with you too!

*Blog Video at the bottom of this post! ๐Ÿ‘‚

A: Do you watch football?
B: Yes.
A: Me too.

A: Do you watch baseball?
B: No.
A: Me neither.

We use the adverbs too and neither to show that a statement is also true for someone or something else.

Too is used for affirmative or positive statements. (do, can, often etc.)

A: Do you watch football?
B: Yes. (I do.)
A: Me too.
(I also watch football.)

Neither is used in negative statements. (don't, can't, never etc.)

A: Do you watch baseball?
B: No. (I don't.)
A: Me neither.
(I also don't watch baseball.)



More examples:

A: I like sushi.
B: Me too!
(I also like sushi.)

A: I don't like natto.
B: Me neither.
(I also don't like natto.)


ferment = to experience a chemical change because of the action of yeast or *bacteria, often changing sugar to alcohol

"Grapes are fermented to make wine."

*bacteria are the simplest and smallest forms of life.
Foods like natto, yogurt, and pickles all have bacteria that is good for you!



A: I can't speak German.
B: Me neither.
(I also can't speak German.)

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Want more info on the e-book?
In English conversation, it's common for the word neither to start a sentence. Please look at these examples:

A: My grandfather won't use a computer.
B: Neither will mine.
(My grandfather also won't usa computer.)

A: I have never been to France.
B: Neither have I.
(I have also never been to France.)

A: I can't speak German.
B: Neither can I.
(I also can't speak German.)


๐Ÿ•ฎ Dictionary definitions ๐Ÿ•ฎ

too (adverb) one way we use the adverb too is to mean ~ also; as well
'I just watched the new Star Wars movie, I liked it.' 'Me too!'

neither (adverb) used to show that a negative statement is also true of somebody/something else
‘I can't understand these instructions.’ ‘Neither can I. They're too complicated.’
(informal) ‘I just watched the new Star Wars movie, I didn't like it.' ‘Me neither.’

Let's use this grammar with more examples where the subject is different than I, me, mine.

Greg hadn't been to New York before and neither had Jane. It was their first trip.
(Greg had never been to New York, Jane had also never been.)

We were talking about politics at work yesterday. Louis likes the new Prime Minister and Joe likes him too. I was surprised! I think he's terrible!
(Louis likes the new Prime Minister, Joe also likes him.)

A: Adam hasn't been to that new club on Queen St. yet.
B: Neither has Gus. We should all go there on Saturday, It'll be fun!
(Adam hasn't been to the new club on Queen St., Gus also hasn't been there.)

It snows a lot in Toronto in February. It snows a lot in Sapporo too.
(It snows a lot in Toronto in February, it also snows a lot in Sapporo in February.)

A: Fred isn't good at soccer.
B: Neither are Mike and Spencer.
(Fred isn't good at soccer, Mike and Spencer are also not good!)

They all need more practice!


๐ŸŽง Listen to the audio from this post here ↓




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Confusing English vocabulary ~ 
See/Watch/Look at
・Use these similar words correctly in conversation! ๐Ÿ†—
・10 example sentences ๐Ÿ–บ
・Just for you! FREE PDF download! ๐Ÿก‡


English Grammar ~ Do you know the difference between Tired OF and Tired FROM?
・Use this grammar correctly! ๐Ÿ‘
・Updated March 2018!
・Now with audio! ๐ŸŽง
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Common English Summer expression! IN THE SHADE (2018)

Summer is here! (Again)
Readers of my blog come from all over the world, some places cooler and some places warmer. If you live in the Northern Hemisphere it's summer! Do you remember the meaning of hemisphere?


hemisphere meaning

I want to teach you some useful English that we can use to talk about summer activities and of course weather. We’ll practice a common phrase today and learn the correct preposition to use with it. There is also a section to help you with pronunciation.

When it’s hot outside it's good to be "out of the sun." The sun can make us feel hot and also burn our skin if we’re not careful. On a hot sunny day, we want to be in the shade. This is today’s expression.

๐ŸŒžIn the shade๐ŸŒด


shade - noun - an area that is cool and dark under or behind something, under a tree or behind a building for example, protected from the sun’s light.
Definition from: https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/

Shade is a cool area and we want to be inside of it, so we use the preposition in. Be in the shade.

Learn the meaning of the English word shade

๐Ÿ”ถ

⇚๐Ÿ”ถ⇛

Here are some more natural example sentences of verbs
with the phrase in the shade.

๐Ÿ”ด“It’s getting hot, let’s get in the shade.”

๐Ÿ”ด“We like to set up our picnic under a tree in the shade. It’s more comfortable.”

๐Ÿ”ด“My friend will meet us here in 15 minutes. We should wait over there in the shade.”

๐Ÿ”ดIs it hot yet where you live? Where is a good place to sit in the shade?


I also learned something from my students here in Japan. (This is one of the advantages of being an active English teacher, live feedback!) The word shade can be easy to mispronounce if you have never heard it. If you only read the word, the sound is not so clear.

๐Ÿ’ฌPronunciation๐Ÿ‘‚

Here is the sound shade makes:


SH is like "Shhh....! This is a library, please be quiet."
ADE is like AID "I cut my finger and now I need a band-aid."

band aid

"It's a hot and sunny today so let's put our picnic blanket in the shade under that big tree."

in the shade

I found a song on YouTube called In The Shade. Lucky!
The pronunciation is long because the word is sung not spoken but I hope it's helpful!



Check out these other great posts too!
๐Ÿ”ป




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World Cup English vocabulary ~ PLACE ~ 4 different meanings (2018)



The word place has more than 10 different uses in English! Here are 3 examples:


PLACE


Meanings from: https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/
1. location or area

"This looks like a good place for our picnic. Many trees will give us lots of shade."



2. position or seat especially one that is available for a person or a thing

"Hi Steven, you can sit with us! I saved you a place."

"Is there some place I can put my school books?"



3. role or importance of somebody/something in a situation, usually in relation to others

A: "I'm having a difficult time with my son, he hates school. What can I do?"
B: "I don't have kids so I'm in no place to give advice."




Here is a 4th meaning that relates to races and 
competitions like the World Cup:

4. A position among the winners of a race or competition.

"I trained hard for the race and I finished in first place!"


2018 World Cup! 
France is first place, Croatia is second place and Belgium finished in third place.



Did you watch the tournament?
Learn more useful English vocabulary at the links below!

Who are you cheering for?




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๐Ÿ“š Learn  50 common English phrasal verbs  What is a phrasal verb? ~ In English, a phrasal verb is a combination (mixture) of ...

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